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FAU Astronomical Observatory -- Front Page
Welcome to the Observatory's Front Page. Included here are some of the latest news and articles that may be of interest to our visitors. General observatory information, such as location and maps, viewing schedules, Events Calendar, contact information, student class credits, parking and other general information, can be found on the "About the Observatory" page.
We also have a growing coverage about the issue of light pollution, what it is, what it does to the environment, to ourselves, to our wallets and resources, to our security and safety, to the majestic wonders of the night sky and what YOU can do about it. This is a man made problem that is prepetuated by a lack of awareness and is something that we all can correct.
The Front Page
General Sky Conditions
Solar conditions, atmospheric phenomena and news are reported by www.SpaceWeather.com.
The current sky conditions of Boca Raton are found via the Clear Sky Clock:
Basic weather conditions for our area are at www.wunderground.com forecast for Boca Raton, while our astronomically important current cloud cover conditions can be found at www.wunderground.com for Boca Raton.
The Sun currently appears in the constellation Gemini the twins. It will cross into Cancer the crab on July 20th,
just in time for the 45th anniversary of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren's first walks on the Moon
Lunar Phases: LAST Quarter: July 19th; NEW Moon July 26th; FIRST Quarter: Aug. 4th; Full Moon Aug. 10th; LAST Quarter: July 17th; NEW Moon Aug. 25th.
Mercury is moving prograde into the constellation of Gemini the twins in the early morning just before dawn. It will cross into Cancer on July 31st, appear to be just over a degree away from Jupiter on Aug. 2nd and then we'll lose it into the Sun's glare by the 4th. It reaches superior conjunction with the Sun on Aug. 8th, so we won't be able to see it until Aug. 16th, when it will start to come out of the glare of the Sun in the evening skies.
Venus is simply stunning at mv = -3.90 in Orion the Hunter in the eastern morning skies. It
will very briefly stay within Orion's boundaries on July the 17th and the 18th, and then pass into Gemini's space. It attepted
to catch up to Mercury and got withing 6.22° of it on the 17th. But Mercury has crossed into Gemini and will
appear to increase its speed and leave Mater Amorum (
Mars is in Virgo, just over 2° east of Spica, the maiden's left shoulder. On Aug. the 10th, it will enter Libra. On Aug. 18th, Mars, the star Zubenelgenubi and Saturn will appear in a straight line, and on the 25st, appear only 3.5° south of Saturn. On the 31st, look for Saturn, Mars, the star and a 6 day old waxing cresent Moon to appear together in the south-western sky. By Sept. 13th, Mars will cross into Scorpio's boundaries and be only 0.5° away from Dschubba, the head star of the Scorpion. It will pass the globular cluster M80 on the 23rd at just over 8 arcmin, but at 1330 EDT, so we won't see that. It will enter the constellation Ophiuchus on Sep. 25th.
As the Sun sets, try find Jupiter toward the west in the constellation Cancer, but we are losing view of it in the glare of the evening Sun. Its solar conjunction will be on July the 23rd. We'll find it in the eastern morning sky thereafter.
Saturn's brightness at mv = 0.21.
It appears in Libra, late in the evening skies. It is still in retrograde. Saturn appeared to have some
Uranus is slowly advancing through Pisces and will appear with the fish until Apr. 28th, 2018! On morning of October the 8th, Uranus will be less than a degree away from the Moon as the Moon will be eclipsed by the Earth's shadow.
Neptune is currently just over 1.5° north and east of Sigma Aquarii in the evening sky. By Sep. 12th it will appear 0.5° away from the star. It will reside in Aquarius until 2022.
Sunday, July 20th, 1969, 3:06 pm CDT
three hours earlier, the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle had separated from the Command Module (CM) Columbia. The two
ships had been in radio silence for 22 minutes as they came around the back side of the Moon. Capcom Charlie Duke called to them
Their communication signal to Houston soon dropped out. Collins above in the CM radioed the fact to the descending crewmates. Aldrin below switched to a different communications antenna and restored the link.
With the Eagle face down, Armstrong could see the landmarks that he studied and recognized were appearing
2 seconds earlier than when they scheduled to appear. As they were moving about a mile per second, they would be landing 2 miles down
range than what was planned. As he radioed to Earth that their position checks were
The braking continued and at 46,000 feet, Armstrong turned Eagle over on its back so the landing radar could point to the Moon. 6,000 feet lower, the radar came on, filling them with information about their speed and altitude. As the computer revised its trajectory, they felt manuveuring jets fire and shake the ship, more often than what simulators had given.
Aldrin checked height calculations fron the data, and found he and the computer were off by several thousand
feet. While he felt the computer was more reliable, he wanted mission control to verify. As he keyed a request to their guidance
computer to display the height difference, the computer's Master Alarm buzzed on and PROG light glowed yellow.
Back in Mission Control, computer experts Bales and Garman realized that the alarm meant that the computer was calling out for help. Every one second cycle, the computer had a to-do list of items to monitor and make decisions on. If it had too many things to do in the one second cycle, it sounded the alarm and restarted from the top of its list. Bales and Garman said that as long as it came and went, the astronauts would be okay. If it stayed on, it would be an almost certain abort. An abort would fire the upper stage rocket of the LM, separating the two halves, in a maneuver no one wanted to go through. To reduce the computer's chores, Mission Control would monitor the height difference and relay it via Capcom. However, Houston was 3 seconds away, at light speed, round trip to the Moon.
Halfway through the Powered Descent, Eagle's engines throttled back and then it pitched over so
Armstrong looked for landmarks to find a spot to land, as Aldrin called out
Neil knew that he would have to hand fly the ship the rest of the way. Without explaining why, he hit the
'ATTITUDE HOLD', pitched the lander level, and fired the descent rocket to slow their fall while still continuing their horizontal
motion to get past the boulders. To allow Armstrong to concentrate on searching for a safe place to land, Aldrin read out the
Their computer calculated that they had ninety seconds of fuel left. If they were still up when it ran out, they were dead weight. If an abort would be needed, the descent rocket would still need twenty seconds to allow for enough time for the ascent rocket to fire. And with the decreasing fuel level, Eagle was becoming top heavy, keeping it level was important to prevent breaking off a leg at landing and for them to leave the Moon, when that time came, so they would not arc back to the Moon.
Armstrong looked for an outside reference point, but found that their rocket plume blasted away the lunar dust,
covering everything in rushing streaks that hid the surface. The island-like rocks that stuck up through the dust was all that he needed
as he said
At thrity feet, Armstrong worked away some backward motion and knew he was low on fuel, but then came some
sideways motion. Flight Director Gene Kranz warned of the lack of gas stations on the Moon, as Capcom called out
Aldrin replied that the fuel warning
Houston registered them down, but Capcom wanted confirmation,
3:17:42 pm, CDT, Sunday, July 20th, 1969.
Forty-five years ago.
To learn more about these explorers try
The Seoul, South Korean 10th Year Anniversary Light Pollution UCC & Photo Contest
The FAU Astronomical Observatory is pleased to help out and applaud the Feelux Lighting Museum in Seoul, South Korea, who has partnered with the Seoul Metropolitan Government, to host the 10th anniversary of the Light Pollution Photography and Videography Contest 2014. The purpose of the contest, held annually since 2005, is to increase the awareness of light pollution and to pursue healthier uses of light that is more harmonious with the environment.
The images/videos submitted to this year's contest should feature either examples of light pollution or
examples of natural lights sources that promote coexistence between nature and people in healthier lifestyles. Details of the
contest, its guidelines for submissions, and the prizes that can be won are found on the Museum's website at:
The Museum's webpages or our own webpages has more examples and information about light pollution, what it is, what its effects are on the environment, our own health, our energy resources and our safety.
Can You Identify This Image?
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida
E-mail: vandernoot at sci dot fau dot edu
Phone: 561 297 STAR (7827)
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